GCPでSSL対応したWordPressを簡単に構築してみる

個人ブログをWordPressに移行した時にGCPにWordPressを構築しました。SSLに対応させる時に少し苦戦しました。その時のメモになります。

GCP側の設定

GCPプロジェクトを作成

作成方法はこちらを参考にしました
Google Cloud Platform のプロジェクトを作成する

GCPでMarketplaceを選択

GCPコンソールのMarketplaceを選択

WordPress購入

MarketplaceのWordPressを選択

運用開始を選択

WordPressデプロイ

DeploymentAdministrator e-mail addressを入力後、一番下にあるデプロイを選択

しばらくするとWordPress構築完了
右側の接続情報をもとに、WordPress・MySQLに接続します

サーバ側のSSL対応

WordPressをSSL対応にするには、サーバ側とWordPress側の両方設定変更が必要
まずはサーバ側から設定していきます

GCPコンソールからサーバにSSHで接続

GCPコンソールよりSSHで接続

certbot-auto をダウンロード

wget https://dl.eff.org/certbot-auto && chmod a+x certbot-auto

SSL証明書を作成

./certbot-auto certonly --webroot -w /var/www/html/ -d example.com -d www.example.com

ApacheのSSL設定

Apacheの default-ssl.conf を以下のファイルに置き換える
※ドメイン example.com は適宜変更

sudo vi /etc/apache2/sites-available/default-ssl.conf
<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
        <VirtualHost _default_:443>
                ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
                <Directory /var/www/html/>
                Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
                AllowOverride All
                Order allow,deny
                allow from all
                </Directory>
                # Available loglevels: trace8, ..., trace1, debug, info, notice, warn,
                # error, crit, alert, emerg.
                # It is also possible to configure the loglevel for particular
                # modules, e.g.
                #LogLevel info ssl:warn
                ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
                CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined
                # For most configuration files from conf-available/, which are
                # enabled or disabled at a global level, it is possible to
                # include a line for only one particular virtual host. For example the
                # following line enables the CGI configuration for this host only
                # after it has been globally disabled with "a2disconf".
                #Include conf-available/serve-cgi-bin.conf
                #   SSL Engine Switch:
                #   Enable/Disable SSL for this virtual host.
                SSLEngine on
                #   A self-signed (snakeoil) certificate can be created by installing
                #   the ssl-cert package. See
                #   /usr/share/doc/apache2/README.Debian.gz for more info.
                #   If both key and certificate are stored in the same file, only the
                #   SSLCertificateFile directive is needed.
                SSLCertificateFile "/etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/cert.pem"
                SSLCertificateKeyFile "/etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem"
                #   Server Certificate Chain:
                #   Point SSLCertificateChainFile at a file containing the
                #   concatenation of PEM encoded CA certificates which form the
                #   certificate chain for the server certificate. Alternatively
                #   the referenced file can be the same as SSLCertificateFile
                #   when the CA certificates are directly appended to the server
                #   certificate for convinience.
                SSLCertificateChainFile "/etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/chain.pem"

                #   Certificate Authority (CA):
                #   Set the CA certificate verification path where to find CA
                #   certificates for client authentication or alternatively one
                #   huge file containing all of them (file must be PEM encoded)
                #   Note: Inside SSLCACertificatePath you need hash symlinks
                #                to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
                #                Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
                #SSLCACertificatePath /etc/ssl/certs/
                #SSLCACertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/ca-bundle.crt

                #   Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL):
                #   Set the CA revocation path where to find CA CRLs for client
                #   authentication or alternatively one huge file containing all
                #   of them (file must be PEM encoded)
                #   Note: Inside SSLCARevocationPath you need hash symlinks
                #                to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
                #                Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
                #SSLCARevocationPath /etc/apache2/ssl.crl/
                #SSLCARevocationFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crl/ca-bundle.crl

                #   Client Authentication (Type):
                #   Client certificate verification type and depth.  Types are
                #   none, optional, require and optional_no_ca.  Depth is a
                #   number which specifies how deeply to verify the certificate
                #   issuer chain before deciding the certificate is not valid.
                #SSLVerifyClient require
                #SSLVerifyDepth  10

                #   SSL Engine Options:
                #   Set various options for the SSL engine.
                #   o FakeBasicAuth:
                #        Translate the client X.509 into a Basic Authorisation.  This means that
                #        the standard Auth/DBMAuth methods can be used for access control.  The
                #        user name is the `one line' version of the client's X.509 certificate.
                #        Note that no password is obtained from the user. Every entry in the user
                #        file needs this password: `xxj31ZMTZzkVA'.
                #   o ExportCertData:
                #        This exports two additional environment variables: SSL_CLIENT_CERT and
                #        SSL_SERVER_CERT. These contain the PEM-encoded certificates of the
                #        server (always existing) and the client (only existing when client
                #        authentication is used). This can be used to import the certificates
                #        into CGI scripts.
                #   o StdEnvVars:
                #        This exports the standard SSL/TLS related `SSL_*' environment variables.
                #        Per default this exportation is switched off for performance reasons,
                #        because the extraction step is an expensive operation and is usually
                #        useless for serving static content. So one usually enables the
                #        exportation for CGI and SSI requests only.
                #   o OptRenegotiate:
                #        This enables optimized SSL connection renegotiation handling when SSL
                #        directives are used in per-directory context.
                #SSLOptions +FakeBasicAuth +ExportCertData +StrictRequire
                <FilesMatch "\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php)$">
                                SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
                </FilesMatch>
                <Directory /usr/lib/cgi-bin>
                                SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
                </Directory>

                #   SSL Protocol Adjustments:
                #   The safe and default but still SSL/TLS standard compliant shutdown
                #   approach is that mod_ssl sends the close notify alert but doesn't wait for
                #   the close notify alert from client. When you need a different shutdown
                #   approach you can use one of the following variables:
                #   o ssl-unclean-shutdown:
                #        This forces an unclean shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. no
                #        SSL close notify alert is send or allowed to received.  This violates
                #        the SSL/TLS standard but is needed for some brain-dead browsers. Use
                #        this when you receive I/O errors because of the standard approach where
                #        mod_ssl sends the close notify alert.
                #   o ssl-accurate-shutdown:
                #        This forces an accurate shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. a
                #        SSL close notify alert is send and mod_ssl waits for the close notify
                #        alert of the client. This is 100% SSL/TLS standard compliant, but in
                #        practice often causes hanging connections with brain-dead browsers. Use
                #        this only for browsers where you know that their SSL implementation
                #        works correctly.
                #   Notice: Most problems of broken clients are also related to the HTTP
                #   keep-alive facility, so you usually additionally want to disable
                #   keep-alive for those clients, too. Use variable "nokeepalive" for this.
                #   Similarly, one has to force some clients to use HTTP/1.0 to workaround
                #   their broken HTTP/1.1 implementation. Use variables "downgrade-1.0" and
                #   "force-response-1.0" for this.
                # BrowserMatch "MSIE [2-6]" \
                #               nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
                #               downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0

        </VirtualHost>
</IfModule>

Apacheのwordpress.confを以下のファイルに置き換える
※ドメイン example.com は適宜変更

sudo vi /etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf
<VirtualHost *:80>
ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
DocumentRoot /var/www/html

ServerName www.example.com
ServerAlias example.com
Redirect permanent / https://www.example.com/

<Directory />
Options FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride None
</Directory>
<Directory /var/www/html/>
Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
AllowOverride All
Order allow,deny
allow from all
</Directory>
ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /usr/lib/cgi-bin/
<Directory "/usr/lib/cgi-bin">
AllowOverride None
Options +ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
Order allow,deny
Allow from all
</Directory>
ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
# Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
# alert, emerg.
LogLevel warn
CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined
</VirtualHost>

SSLを有効にして、Apache再起動

sudo a2ensite default-ssl
sudo a2enmod ssl
sudo systemctl restart apache2

WordPress側のSSL対応

GCPコンソールの接続情報より、WordPress管理画面に接続する
必要な情報は以下の通り

  • Admin URL
  • WordPress Admin user
  • WordPress Admin password

Settings->General を選択

WordPress Address (URL) Site Address (URL) を https:// 含めたURLにして更新

以上でGCPにSSL対応したWordPressを簡単に構築できました

参考

タイトルとURLをコピーしました